10 October 2011

010 - The Realities of Urban Chicken Keeping

"You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed" -The Little Prince

"How NOT to Raise Chickens" I don't agree entirely with this comic, but it gets the point across nicely of what the urban myths are about chicken keeping and the realities that people don't think about. Many of the topics in this comic I'll address here, as well.

EDIT: Chicken Run Rescue has posted an article that outlines basically what I've said below, plus gives some advice on re-homing your chickens if you honestly feel as though you can't handle them anymore. The article is found [Here]. EDIT OVER.

I admit, the first time I read that comic I was kind of offended by the assumption that people raising backyard poultry were moronic hipsters... then I started rescuing chickens from moronic hipsters. I have had so many people contact me lately who've wanted to "get a couple chickens" and I've stopped responding to them all together in favour of writing this blog post.

I have honestly been asked, on a number of occasions, "So egg laying stops in a couple of years and I don't want to keep my chickens after that, but I don't want to slaughter them. That's where you come in, right? I just give you all of my unwanted chickens?" I am, unfortunately, NOT making this up, and my straight-up answer is to grow a spine and slaughter your own chickens if you're going to be treating them as naught but live-stock because I am NOT a dumping ground for unwanted chickens - I rescue chickens from inhumane conditions, and if I ever need to "rescue" a chicken from you, I will NEVER give you a chicken.

A Couple of Chickens...

... is never enough. The minimum number of chickens for ideal psychological balance in a group if you're NOT going to be spending all of your time with them is seven. With seven chickens, regardless of sex, all social positions are filled and minimum flock balance is achieved. I would like to note that this is LARGER than most cities allow, as it's quite common for the legal number of chickens in a backyard to be between 2-5, which at those numbers if you want to maintain psychological balance in your flock, you WILL have to take an active role in your chickens lives!

Minimum outdoor space for your chicken if you want to make sure that they don't decimate an area is 124 sq ft per bird. This amount of space ensures that the amount of manure they drop will be composed and the grass re-grown by the time they make it over to that area again. In other words, you'll never be out of grass for your chickens to graze if your chickens are full-sized and you stick to this formula. I would then ASSUME that a bantam at 1/4 the size of a standard bird would need 1/4 the space, but I haven't researched that.

Similarly, a coop needs a minimum of 12 cubic feet per bird, though some people will try to tell you four to six cubic feet is all you need. Some people will also tell you that you only need to clean your coop twice a year, which is FALSE FALSE FALSE!! You should clean your coop NO LESS than every other week - my rule is that when you can't easily discern the floor from manure, clean it - this usually leaves me cleaning my coop every three days when the weather is bad enough that I have to keep them confined to the coop.

Note: Chickens defecate the MOST at night while they're roosting and sleeping, so if you put some newspapers below your chickens while they're sleeping and pick the papers up before they get up, you'll save a lot of time cleaning!

The Egg-a-Day Myth

I have been lucky and fortunate to have two VERY happy hens that have given me an egg a day almost since they started laying. When I had many hens, almost all of them gave me an egg a day, but that circumstance is EXCEPTIONALLY rare. My hens were healthy, happy, felt safe and confident, and at the time I may have been feeding them in such a way to encourage egg production. I even kept receiving eggs through the winter! However, my chickens were housed inside, exposed to light while I was awake, never exposed to snow or harsh winter weather, and again, healthy and happy.

This winter is my first moult, and my chickens have stopped laying all together. All of those precious nutrients that go into making eggs suddenly becomes diverted into creating fresh, new feathers. Encouraging egg-laying during this period is very, very bad since it then makes a year's worth of feathers very, very brittle and all-around unhappy. It can encourage bad skin conditions, feathers growing in wrong ( kind of like ingrown hairs ), and all sorts of bad things can happen.

Winter is also when chickens restock their "calcium glands". I have never found proof or documentation that there is an actual GLAND for calcium deposits, but there is a little thing near the ovaries that supplies the calcium needed to make a shell! It's important to feed crushed egg shells and oyster shells to chickens because if that calcium deposit runs out, calcium will be sucked from the bird's skeleton, making them much more prone to broken bones and other osteo-diseases.

An egg a day is exceptionally rare and most hens that produce lots of eggs are bred to do so. The most eggs to ever be produced was 364 by an Australorp sometime in the early 1900s, but the bloodline that produced this bird has since gone extinct and that hen was an anomaly even amongst her strain. It did bring rise to Australorp awareness on a global level, but the most eggs produced by breed will likely be white Leghorns, non-heritage Rhode Island Reds, and Plymouth Rocks, and sex-linked breeds such as anything ending with "star".

To receive eggs during the winter you must expose your chickens to fourteen hours of light a day. No special lighting is needed - just an average lamp will do. However, if you do this you will be depraving your chickens of their recovery period, which considering how hard it is on their bodies to lay as many eggs as they've been bred to do already, will drastically cut their life expectancies. Look for good winter layers such as Transylvanian Naked-Neck chickens ( also known as Turkens, but there is not an ounce of turkey in these birds - they're all chicken ), Delawares, or Faverolles to name a few. They don't lay as many eggs as other breeds, but that's to stretch out their laying during the winter.

Please remember that by encouraging egg-laying in your chickens, you are also encouraging a plethora of reproductive-related illnesses! Enhancing egg-laying also encourages such things as cloacal prolapse, egg-binding, egg peritonitis ( also known as "internal laying" ), cysts developing on the ovaries just to name a few ailments.

The number one reason the "egg a day" statement is a myth, though? It takes a hen's body 25-26 hours to MAKE an egg, meaning each day your hen will lay an hour ( or more ) LATER than she did the day before! That means that now and then she'll go to sleep before laying, and when that happens and she hasn't laid all the day before, she'll wake up the next day and lay her egg FIRST THING in the morning, skipping a day. You will not have received an egg that day!

However, if you're worried about having too many eggs in the summer and not enough during the winter, do not fret! On the outside of the egg is the "bloom" - this is an invisible protective layer created inside of the hen and comes into being immediately after the egg is laid and dries. The bloom is destroyed the moment it comes in contact with water. If you wash your eggs and refrigerate them immediately, your eggs will be good for about three months. If you do NOT wash your eggs ( instead gently brush off debris and use sand paper if there is some particularly stubborn debris - or just wash it right before you use it ), you can leave them out for up to a week and then refrigerate them and they'll be good up to SIX MONTHS! I have tested this, myself.

Worried that your egg is bad or you don't know when it was laid? Float-test it! As eggs "go bad", oxygen builds up inside of the shell. If your egg is bad, it will float in water. If your egg bounces off the bottom, floats to the top, and then goes back down... well, I'd throw it out, and if it bounces just a little bit ONLY use it in baking - do NOT fry or poach that egg!

My Chicken is Sick...

Well, too bad! As much as I hate to admit it, this is the response from MOST chicken owners to newbie chicken owners about sick or injured chickens. There is almost NO veterinary care aimed towards chickens, and almost all advice on chicken forums leads to either "kill it" or "stew pot". I am VERY fortunate to have a vet that is excited to work with my chickens and research whatever I bring to him, and to have worked with people who have had the patience to do what's best for their chickens, resulting in some incredible stories of survival and recovery.

When it comes to vaccines, though vaccines DO exist, they tend to be for flocks of 500-1000 chickens, and some vaccines can only be given to chicks no more than 72 hours old! Have a backyard flock of five chickens? Good luck finding a cost-effective way of vaccinating everyone against New Castle's, Marek's, or coccidiosis! I imagine that if you have a large-scale poultry farm near you that you might be able to talk to them about taking some of the cost of the vaccine, but I wouldn't bet on it. If they wanted it, they'd probably already have it, but they do get new batches of chicks every spring or every other spring, so if they DO vaccinate their chickens you could approach them before they get their chicks. I've never, personally, done this, but it's worth a shot, no?

Also keep in mind that MOST anti-worm and anti-parasitic medications make eggs "non-human consumable", and you'll have to wait 14-30 days before you can consume meat or eggs from treated birds. The bottle should tell you how long you have to wait. Same goes for "dusting" your chickens. Almost all medication and dust is toxic on some level ( poison the bird to poison the bug ), and NEVER use dust in a non-ventilated area. I dusted my chickens in my bath tub with the window open and fan on, and sprayed down the tub immediately afterward. Your coop MUST be sanitised at the same time as your birds, otherwise they'll just pick up the parasite again - I've heard good things about using vinegar, but watered-down bleach left to air dry is probably your best bet.

Does your hen have a prolapsed cloaca? The only way to solve this is surgically. You can stuff the cloaca back in, ice it, and all sorts of other remedies are out there, but it'll usually pop out again, and usually with the next egg. Ask your local vet about doing surgery on a bird - a chicken no less - and they'll probably laugh you out of the clinic! I called a clinic one when I had a scalped chick and they were all ready to get me in as soon as possible, then the woman on the line asked, "You said you had a CAT, right?" and I said, "No, a chick! A baby chicken!"

"Oh," she said, deflated, "Uhm... we'll... call you back, okay?" She hung up and NEVER called back. This was my experience with every single clinic until I found the one I'm currently with ( Farm House Veterinary run by Dr. Widener for anyone in the Olympia, Washington area! ).

Do you want to neuter your rooster to keep him from plucking all the feathers on your hens due to incessant mounting, or to lessen aggression, or to make him pretty and his meat supple? This is called "caponising" and is RARELY done these days. There's only a 33% survival rate since it's an internal surgery ( the chicken's testicles are up on their backs under their ribs ). All pet chickens are "intact" and you have to deal with sexual aggression whether you want to or not - from both sexes!

Chickens are one of the only animals without slaughter rights today. All birds lack slaughter rights, but other animals such as cows, goats, sheep, and pigs have slaughter rights. Why? Because when the laws about slaughter rights were being made, chickens were considered "too unintelligent to comprehend pain". There are NO laws to protect chickens against abuse or inhumane conditions - both in keeping and in killing, which brings us to our next topic...

Recycling / Upcycling Chickens

Ever heard of chicken recycling plants or upcycling? Also known as "trading in" your chickens for newer, fresher ones. At eighteen months is usually when egg production declines, and if you've pumped your chickens for every last egg in that amount of time, they'll be spent, and their egg laying might even abruptly stop. Urban chicken keepers don't realise that chickens are NOT egg-laying machines, they need maintenance and there's a moment where you have to decide if they're earning their keep anymore.

Obviously, my chickens earn their keep just by being chickens. By being cute, cuddly feathered friends that love me as much as I love them. However, for a lot of people, a chicken's keep is earned directly by how many eggs they produce. Considering start-up, maintenance, and feed costs, collecting your own eggs is NOT cheap, and it definitely will NOT be cheaper than buying eggs from the store. Farm-fresh eggs are expensive, and store-bought eggs have cut so many corners to produce that they're pretty darn cheap.

If you recycle, upcycle, or trade in your chickens, here is the unfortunate truth about what happens...

Your chicken will die. It will die an awful death that you could prevent by learning how to humanely slaughter, yourself, or by simply never engaging in the backyard chicken fad.

Your chicken has known you for about two years now. It knows your face and your voice, and you are a part of its flock - even if you ARE ill-adjusted, and your chicken knows it, your chicken still loves you. It loves you unconditionally, and every time it attacks you, it's trying to help you. Honest-to-God, it is TRYING to discourage behaviours that it sees as "unhealthy" and help you live right! I'm seriously not making that up, I've addressed it in previous posts.

You put your chicken into a crate or other holding facility for a car-ride to the recycling plant. If your chicken has been on car rides before, cool! It's familiar with this part, and it'll probably calm down after awhile even if it isn't. It can still hear you, and that, at least, is comforting. When you arrive, you take your chicken out and the whole place is big and strange! Who are these other people? You hand your chicken over to the other people and you leave. Well, you leave every day after feeding them and putting them to bed, so maybe when it's dark you'll come back... but in the mean time there's these people that are handling your chicken very roughly and probably not even treating it as a living creature.

Remember, chickens are business, and businesses put on faces that best appeal to their prospective buyers! They'll tell you what you want to hear ( "she's going to a nice farm", or "she'll be killed quickly and humanely" ), and with the laws surrounding chicken keeling and slaughter, they are NOT, technically, lying! As soon as you leave, or your chicken goes out of sight, it is no longer a bright, nice world.

"Spent" chickens are shoved into a cage full of other chickens so tightly that they can NOT move, and shipped off to a slaughtering plant. Many chickens break wings and legs in this process, and several die in transportation, some from suffocation, some from panic. At the slaughtering plant, no laws maintain humane treatment so the chickens are often unloaded roughly and shoved, even kicked and thrown towards their destinations. The most humane form of slaughter is where the chicken's feet are shoved into metal clamps that hold them upside-down. First the conveyor belt dips the chickens into a trench of water that is pulsed with electricity - up to about 80% are unaffected by this step. It's supposed to use just enough electricity to knock them out, but not kill them. The next step, the chickens are brought through a line of spinning blades that are supposed to slit their throats and allow them to bleed out, killing them that way - many survive this step. The next step, the belt again dips them into water - this time their whole bodies, and the water is just under 140*F. Many chickens survive even THIS, and are alive as their bodies are pulverised by feather-plucking machines!

As you can see, supervising your own slaughter of your own poultry is MUCH more humane than recycling and trading in.

Auctions are just about as bad as upcycling, and most people buying poultry at auctions have a "live stock" mentality and are experienced farmers or breeders. Breeding chickens can be just as laborious and inhumane as egg production since eggs are encourage and produced, males are encouraged to mate ( resulting in "over mated" hens which can result in grave injuries ), and eggs are hatched out in incubators or sold as fertilised. I have NOT encountered as many horror stories from breeding-stock chickens as I have from meat or egg production, though. Almost all roosters bought at auctions are slaughtered immediately either for their meat or their feathers. Cat toys and most fishing flies use rooster feathers if they use feathers at all, and almost ALL craft store feathers are from meat-production turkeys that have been dyed. It is UNPROFITABLE to keep a rooster alive just for his feathers, though, so don't expect a particularly pretty bird to be well-off!

Predator Proofing

The number one cause of chicken casualties outside of intentional slaughter is predators, followed closely by weathering ( over heating and frost bite to be precise ), and finally chicken-specific diseases ( especially reproductive ones for hens ), and poor sanitation ( leading to disease ). Almost all newbie chicken owners will have a run-in with their first predator pretty quick, since chickens are pretty darn high on the list of easy prey for most predators.

Here's a list of common predators, just for starters: neighbourhood dogs and cats, raccoons, opossums, coyotes, hawks, eagles, osprey, weasels, snakes, foxes, mink, cougars, bears...

Neighbourhood pets, though not very hunting-savvy, tend to do the most damage on urban flocks since their instincts to chase are still there, but they have no idea what to do with a dead body, most of the time. Dogs will dig into your yard, cats will jump the fence, and they'll "play" with your chooks to death. Raccoons and opossums have been my biggest ire, especially when my housemates left their chickens COMPLETELY unguarded and open to night-time predation. If you have a wide field for free-ranging, raptors will be your ire since they'll swoop in and take a chicken in the time it takes for you to answer the phone. Foxes, weasels, and raccoons will dig under and fencing you have, or reach in through fencing and "grab" chickens, killing them without even being able to get them through the wire. Cougars and bears will tear down your entire coop and enclosure without prejudice to what they're destroying, and they might even become aggressive towards you if they associate you with the easy meals.

Another common problem is rats and mice. Rodents need to chew things CONSTANTLY, and if you have roosting chickens, that will include their toes. Don't believe me? This thread on Backyard Chickens shows very graphic photos of what many believe were mice or rats that chewed off the faces of several silkie chickens! Others suspect raccoons, but the incidents ceased all together once hardware cloth was placed over all the openings to the coops.

How do you predator-proof an area? Lots of money, for one. Proper fencing is necessary, and for ultimate protection double fence everything with at least a foot between your inside and outside fencing and put nets over the tops of your runs. If you have a huge yard or range that you're letting your chickens run in, I've heard that just putting strings of fishing wire tied off to sticks here and there helps to discourage hawks. Always bury your fencing at least a foot underground or bury large rocks in the ground around your fence, and put rocks or planks in front of any gate structures you have. Make sure coops are well ventilated, but free from drafts and any openings where chickens can get out or mice can get in.

Proofing against big predators is a bit harder, and foxes and raccoons can be tenacious and intelligent predators. I, personally, have never had to protect against any but the raccoons, and the coop in the garage seems to have discouraged them nicely. However, I have heard wonderful things about electric fencing both to keep poultry in and predators out. If your poultry is getting out the two most likely ways I've found is that they scoot UNDER fencing ( they will unintentionally dig out, too - I say unintentionally because they'll take dust baths near the edge until they happen to notice it's deep enough to squeeze under ), or they fly OVER fencing by jumping up, landing on the top, and jumping back down. A low-volt electric wire on the top and bottom of your fencing should do well to keep your birds in.

However, if you're not worried about your chickens escaping, a wire or two running just OUTSIDE of your enclosure might be best. I have also heard of a product called "Nite Guard" that is a little box that flashes a red light to scare away predators ( as well as deer if you're having issues keeping them out of your garden! ). You just set it up around your enclosure, although I have no idea how many or just how they work since I don't have to worry too much about night-time predators what with my coop inside the house and all. I have, however, heard multiple accounts of them working well, and know several people that will swear by this product.

Similar to how the Nite Guard works, I have heard that for repelling predators ( and again, deer ) during the day, some people hang shiny things around their property such as CDs, shiny ribbons or metallic tape. The key is to let the items move in the wind so that it simulates the same "flashing" as the above-mentioned product, and with these you can be really creative. Since you're trying to catch wind, you can try to mimic other wind-catcher products such as chimes, swirly things with lots of ribbons, metal art ( so long as it's polished and shiny ), and much more! You can really decorate your property with these things since there's never too many of them, and if you have children, it's a great way to encourage them to be involved with the safety of your livestock and gardens!

Lastly, if you want to predator-proof your poultry... invest in an ostrich, emu, or rhea! Emus are mid-ranged in size, and have the best temperament, and make the best pets out of these three. Rheas are slightly smaller, and tend to be more common, but they require behavioural upkeep to prevent aggression, and they NEED structure. If your poultry is unstructured, a rhea is NOT for you. Ostriches have a bad reputation for being mean, nasty creatures, but with proper structure and socialisation, they can make wonderful additions to a farm. They need about as much room as a horse, but due to their size and potential power I would say the same rule applies to an ostrich as a rhea: If you cannot provide proper structure and spend LOTS of time with your birds to maintain flock balance, do NOT acquire an ostrich.

Ostriches, emus, and rheas do a fantastic job of integrating into poultry flocks, especially when they're raised around poultry as chicks, and if you adopt one into your flock they'll never know that they're NOT with their native species. These large birds do a marvellous job of discouraging many predators, and will often take the dominant role in the flock, meaning that they'll take it upon themselves to protect the flock at all costs. Turkeys do a wonderful job to maintain flock balance, though they tend to be just as much of targets to predators to chickens, so if anyone out there can report on the benefits of keeping turkeys for balance, and big birds for protection, I'd love to hear about it! My vet was actually the one who tipped me off to emus, and he has quite a varied flock by the sounds of it.

I, personally, keep my coop in the garage now, and have plans for fencing off the back yard and putting in a place where I can sit in a lawn chair and hang out with my chooks while they get to roam around outside.

Oh No, it's a Boy!

50% of all chicks hatched are male. Compare that to 1/3 of all humans being born male, and only 20% of crows are male. Chickens are pretty evenly matched in that area! If you've ever noticed the trend in the fall of free roosters EVERYWHERE, it's because so many people think it'll be fun to let their hens hatch a brood of chicks, or they buy a "straight run" of chicks ( "straight run" means the chicks are NOT sexed and could be either ) to raise, not realising that half of all those chicks are going to be boys! Now imagine if you let a couple of hens hatch, let's say... twenty-four eggs. You'll end up with twelve roosters! Who wants twelve roosters?? Other than cock fighters, and crazy people who love chickens no matter what they are, that is.

Big-time hatcheries have ways around this. Murray McMurray hatches out about 80,000 chicks PER WEEK. 40,000 of those are boys, which are unprofitable, and end up tossed into boxes of male / female, where the females are shipped out to their new homes ( again, no humane treatment laws, so they're packed tight with extra chicks as "packaging peanuts" - often times males - and as "luggage", MOST chicks being shipped out via air which means they're in the cold, jostling environment of all other air-borne shipments ), and males are shoved on a conveyor belt that drops them into a grinding machine ( all while alive! ), where they're ground into low-grade animal feed. "Chicken" in dog and cat food is often made of these discarded males, and some chicken feed even includes this "by-product"! I don't tend to buy into the idea that chicks die of dehydration or starvation when shipped since in nature, chicks hatched first will often times wait two to three days before all the other chicks are hatched and mum gets up off the nest to take everyone out foraging for the first time, and the last of the nutrients from their yolk is absorbed into them in this time, but they will die of exposure and shock.

Murray McMurray actually practices one of the more "humane" means of discarding males. Other factories will just dump the male chicks into industrial-sized trash cans, letting the chicks suffocate under each other, or stomping them to death to make room for more chicks to be shoved in. Chicks on the tops of the trash cans have the bag tied shut and are tossed into dumpsters, often times living for days before dying of starvation or dehydration. Sometimes male chicks are gassed, but the gas required to do this is expensive, and for an animal with no laws regarding humane treatment, such an expense is often times ruled unnecessary.

So you asked for pullets only, but one of your girls is growing awfully quick and her comb and wattles are big and red, and she's only four weeks old! Well, some breeds of chickens are awfully hard to sex ( such as Silkies and Polishes ), and some boys have very hard to discern bits, and when talking about 40,000 males a WEEK, you're bound to get a mix-up here and there. If you "return" your boy, he'll more likely than not be slaughtered, and if you give him away he'll probably turn into stew or have his feathers sold as fly ties or crafting feathers. Or, he'll go into the fighting industry.

Well, you've made it past all of that and you only have girls! Hooray! You're even receiving eggs out of all of them when one morning... you're awoken by someone crowing?? Here's a reality check you probably NEVER thought about: hens crow! A crowing hen is MOST likely to happen when she lived in a flock with males, and the males were abruptly cut out of her life and it's upon her to take their position. SOME hens take this so seriously that they'll actually TURN INTO A FERTILE, SEXUALLY ACTIVE COCK. Again, I'm not kidding - it's called "Emma-Turns-Into-a-Guy Syndrome". Chickens are exceptionally strange creatures regarding their sexuality since hermaphrodites and other sexual anomalies are extremely common amongst them! Although it's MOST common for this to happen when males are abruptly cut from a flock, and a female takes the role of the male, it is NOT unheard of for this to happen to female-only flocks that have had naught but females for generations.

Domestication is...

This is my biggest rant so far when it comes to chickens, dogs, cats, pigs, cows and ALL domesticated animals. Domestication is a process that takes generations of selective breeding to achieve. Domestication first happened tens of thousands of years ago, with a good likelihood that the dog was the first domesticated creature. Chickens were domesticated roughly 8,000 years ago ( most estimates point towards 6,000BC ). Domestication makes an animal reliant on humans not only for food, water, and shelter, but psychologically as well.

When domestication first began taking place, humans still roamed with the animals, and understood the balance between dominant, submission, and a group of animals. If you are dominant to your dog, he behaves well, respects you, and doesn't suffer from a poorly balanced pack. Chickens, just as sheep, cows, pigs, cats, and all other early-on domesticated animals, fell into the same niche. Their person was the head of their flock, and they followed and trusted this person unconditionally. That's why in many third-world countries people can walk their animals to markets without need for leashes or anything to contain their animals - because they are their animals leaders, their dominant, and the animals respect and follow that.

There is NO such thing as a "wild" chicken - even the flocks that have overtaken Hawaii are still domestic, and still respond well to strong, dominant figures. Whereas a pig can "go feral" in a number of weeks, pigs are quite unique in that. Most other domesticated animals take several generations to "go feral" again - chickens amongst those. The backyard chicken still needs an assertive, dominant, strong leader to follow, and they need structure in their day with rules, boundaries, and limitations to follow and abide by. Like dogs, chickens thrive when they have a person to please on a day-to-day level.

Since many backyard flocks are NOT legally allowed to be big enough to maintain its own structure ( seven or more ), that means it is absolutely imperative that people take an active role in their chicken's lives to maintain a sense of balance. As I've said in previous posts, it is possible to create your OWN pecking order that you and only you keep up, and even in the largest of flocks your presence should still be welcomed and respected. If your rooster is attacking you when you enter the coop, or if the girls scream and flee, your presence is not respected and you're not doing your job of keeping these domesticated animals as happy and healthy as our ancestors intended.

Your chicken is emotionally connected to you and each other. If one chicken needs to be "rehomed" for ANY reason, NEVER send it alone - always send it with its best friend for best luck of being accepted into its new home and adjusting well, even if your chicken is going to be an indoor pet spending ALL of its time with you, it will do best with a buddy. Likewise, never adopt a chicken alone!

Chickens are one of the only animals that have been recorded to empathise with others ( that is, their emotional state is affected by others ), and they are so emotionally connected with each other that they will mourn the passing of a flock-mate ( including humans! ). Chickens can remember up to 150 different faces and voices for up to three years, and when their pattern of meeting those faces and voices is disrupted, they'll figure out that said flock member is gone. Chickens are also intelligent enough to understand death upon observing it. If a cat kills a chick in front of another chicken, that chicken will remember that instance and begin alerting to all other cats even if it had never raised alarm around a cat before then! Likewise, if chickens witness a traumatic slaughter for another chicken, they will be traumatised, whereas if you practise calm, humane slaughtering techniques within the vicinity of your chickens, they will be more compliant come their time to go.

What's extremely remarkable about chickens is that their recognition skills and empathy is cross-species. They can empathise with humans as well as dogs, cats, and horses, as well as recognise faces and voices amongst difference species. They are highly intelligent and require our care and attention to attain the best they can in life.

If you are new to chickens and are considering starting a flock, please be aware of all of these facts before you begin your journey. If your chickens are going to be discarded after their egg-laying declines or because of their sex, make CERTAIN you can slaughter your chickens yourself in the most humane fashion possible, or that you know EXACTLY what's happening to them and you are okay with that outcome. If you can read this post and know that you understand and consent to all of these facts, then welcome to the world of raising chickens. If you do not feel comfortable with what you have read, then maybe chicken-keeping isn't for you.

If you have any questions or comments, I haven't yet figured out if the commenting feature of the blog is working to where I'll be notified, but I will ALWAYS respond to Emails in a fairly timely manner. Best of luck to all of you chicken-lovers out there!

009 - How to Deal With Fixations

FIRST OFF - I must apologise to people who have commented on the blog and received NO responses. It would seem that I was NOT receiving notifications of comments and I AM SO VERY SORRY for this lack of response to those who have commented! Comment notification SHOULD be fixed, and I SHOULD be able to see comments now and actually respond to them. I thought it was weird that I wasn't getting any comments, but just decided to check before posting this blog up! I'll begin making blog posts catered specifically to comments the post after this one, I promise.

I have recently had a few inquiries about chickens with fixations, and have decided that to be the topic for this journal since there is a wide variety of behaviours that can be considered fixations, but since they're all classified under the same thing, they can all be treated as more or less the same thing. Feather plucking and egg eating are fixations just as much as a fighting cock's alleged "need" to fight - let me just point out that in the case of fighting cocks, fighting is NOT a need, but rather a psychological trauma that has manifested as an obsession based on survival. We'll talk about how detrimental fighting is to a chicken's health later in this journal. For now, though, just know that I do not condone fighting animals despite the fact that I walk around with roosters wherever I go. My roosters are my friends, and they are not expendable.

Chickens develop fixations for all sorts of reasons. Fixations are signs of boredom, insecurity, other psychological problems, overcrowding, unstable environments, and are even encouraged by human interaction when we don't know how to properly discourage the behaviour. I have found the most common reasons for fixations to be boredom and unstable environments ( which lead to insecurity and other detrimental psychological problems ). Luckily, both of these issues are well within our control. We're in charge of their environment, so we can take steps to make a more balanced environment for our animals.

An "unstable environment" refers not only to an environment being unsafe or uncomfortable, but also to the energy and emotion that we, as humans, attach to it. If we are abrupt and upset every time we go to collect eggs, soon the chickens will become difficult to work with as they, too, become upset simply because we are. This can even lead to such problems as roosters trying to reestablish the environment by kicking out to unstable specimen - which tends to be us. He's doing this not because he wants to be aggressive, but because he wants to help us to reestablish ourselves. In an animal's perfect world, everyone is healthy, everyone is happy, everyone is well-balanced physically and psychologically. In their perfect world, no one is fussing over them or cooing about this or that. In their perfect world, there is clear structure and boundaries. It's always obvious what their leader wants, and they will consistently receive praise for the same things, and consistently receive discipline for all of the same reasons as before, and when a new rule is introduced, it's made clear what's wanted of them right off.

The key here is communication - specifically communication on the level that the animal understands. Have you ever seen a crow and a squirrel fight? It's surprisingly common, and with some basic understanding of their behaviours, it becomes obvious why these fights take place. Both crows and squirrels make a very similar-sounding clicking noise. For crows it's a way to simply state their territory to another crow and to ask for respect of their territory. For squirrels this is a friendly sound meant to illicit companionship and invitation into one's territory. In other words, they are saying the exact opposite thing, and thus communication between the species breaks down and the animals argue and sometimes fight because they are trying to tell each other, "No, that's not what I said! I said something completely different!" [ DISCLAIMER: this is from my own observations of crows and squirrels. If anyone out there knows crow or squirrel communication better than I do, please inform me - I was not able to find anything to back up these claims when I tried to research their behaviourism myself. ]

However, going back to the previous paragraph... is it possible to obtain our animal's views of the perfect world for them? No. But we can come pretty close. One obvious way that we'll not be able to meet our animal's every desire is the fact that we, as humans, are not able to be with them every single moment we live. There will always be something you need to do that your animals just can't come with. Most stores let me bring my roosters in with me because they are well-mannered and clean, but some stores absolutely forbid it. It is against federal law to bring anything considered a "livestock" animal into a restaurant, even if they're service animals ( which the service animal laws have changed recently, too ). Certain people won't want anything to do with your animals, and these people might be family or employers, or otherwise people we are "obligated" to be connected to. During these moments, however brief they are, our animals are not living in their perfect world. This does not mean that they are destined to be unhappy, though. We merely need to set parameters that give them a clear goal on how to behave while we're gone.

For me and animals that I work with, this starts with patience training, which can often times be integrated with tolerance training. Tolerance training is just what it sounds like - you train your animal to tolerate anything and everything ( so long as you deem it safe and reasonable for your animal to be exposed to such situations ). I train my chickens and dogs to allow me to hold their feet, faces, necks ( gently! ), torsos, tails, legs, and wings. The functional part of this is if your animal ever is hurt, you can easily perform a quick physical check-up to assess the situation. I also train animals to let me handle inside of their mouths in case I ever need to medicate them. These are also good things to train animals for veterinary appointments. Your animals should see the vets at least once or twice a year, and there's no reason your pet should feel at all upset by this experience, which is where tolerance training and patience training come in.

Both tolerance and patience training helps your animal to trust in you and to check in with you when exposed to new situations. That means if you're taking your pet into a grocery store, dog park, veterinary hospital, vehicle, or friend's house for the first time, they will check in with you to see if this situation is safe or not, and depending on your reaction, they will act accordingly. The first time I brought my big rooster, Bo, into a grocery store, he kept looking at me whenever something new would happen and whenever someone else passed by. He would look at me when the cart stopped or started, when I turned, when something was placed into the cart next to him, and each and ever time I made eye-contact, but calmly went along my way, and not once did Bo try to get out of his bag in the cart, make uncertain noises, or make any sign of stress or nervousness.

Patience training is like tolerance training except instead of focusing on being able to tolerate certain activities the animal is now asked to be able to put up with it for extended periods of time. I start out by simply touching my chicken's feet, wings, combs, and wattles, and when they don't pull away I praise them. We'll work up to me being able to handle and manipulate them, and then work towards me being able to hold something for just a few seconds at first and work forward until the animal just plain doesn't care that I'm handling it. When I trim my chicken's claws ( and spurs for cocks ), I will flip them on their back, and then encourage them to relax. They'll often times close their eyes and just let me do my job, and when the trim is over they get to go on their way as if nothing happened.

With patience training, one can train an animal to wait for you to come back, in the mean time leaving them in a calm state of mind. I've seen this most often done with crate training, which is to say you put the animal in a crate and wait for them to calm down, then you let them out. Put them back in, wait for them to calm down, walk out of the room, come back, and let them out. The period of time that you're out of the room will work up and up until you can be gone for up to an hour, and then by that point your animal should be safe being left at home without a crate - but not for long. You'll have to retrain at this point, but since your animal is used to the patience training at this point, they'll catch on quickly since the exercises are so similar, it's just the amount of space open to your animal that has changed. Don't expect to be able to up and leave your animal for a day if you've worked up to an hour and feel confident from there. A day is a lot longer than a single animal and your animal will get bored or start wondering where you are. I can leave my cocks without supervision for about three to five hours before they start crowing, trying to figure out where I've gone off to. Luckily, they only crow a short amount and then go back to whatever they were doing before I left, but some animals will just continue to make noise indefinitely if left at home for too long, and even start performing extremely destructive behaviours such as urinating and defecating indoors, chewing on furniture, or jumping up where they don't belong.

The key to patience training is doing everything in a calm manner and to never progress in any step until your pet is in a relaxed state of mind. They must be relaxed before the exercise even starts, they must be relaxed and calm when entering the crate, they must be relaxed and calm when you stand, when you walk, when you exit, and when you enter. They absolutely must be relaxed and calm when you release them, too. I often simply freeze in my actions until the animal has once again relaxed, and I also train my animals to not ever leave a designated area or engage in an activity until they've been given a "release" command. If I open a crate, an animal is not allowed to exit until I give them that command; if I put food in front of them, they're not allowed to eat it until I give them the command; if I introduce them to a new toy, they're not allowed to engage until I give them the command. Once the command is given, they are allowed to partake in the activity set before them - but remember, even play should be in a controlled manner. You don't want your pet to become too rambunctious or they'll risk breaking something or they'll get so caught up in that high-energy state of mind that they'll forget to listen to you. Even if an animal seems to be completely unaware of what's around it ( dogs playing and ramming book shelves, fire places, or people is a very common happening ), it is not impossible to train them to be aware of their surroundings while playing.

Now that you've successfully patience trained your pet, you've curbed destructive behaviours and fixations that occur due to unstable environments while you are gone. What about when you're home? If your environment can house calm, happy animals while you're gone, it can certainly keep them that way when you come home, and if this is the case - that your animals go wild the moment you come home - then you need to start looking at yourself and how you interact with your pets to figure what you're doing that's causing your pets to behave that way. This does not mean that you are doing anything inherently wrong, destructive, or harmful, and it certainly doesn't mean you're doing anything malicious, but our animals do reflect our own emotions and our own energy that we emanate. Think of them as emotional barometers. I mean this quite seriously, too - even MY chickens become horrible little demon-spawn when I'm upset and casting that energy out around me, but they calm down and behave the moment I stop and take some deep breaths to ground myself once again.

Another big factor in fixations is boredom - and this is another factor that leads to separation anxiety, too. If your pet has absolutely nothing to do while you're gone, they will find something to keep them occupied. However - and here's something a little interesting - patience training helps your animal to have a longer attention span, and thus have less need for things to expend its attention on. Nonetheless, some animals are going to need toys, and don't you think for an instant that lots and lots of room to wander is a suitable way to curb boredom. Some of the worst dogs I've worked with are dogs that have had lots and lots of acreage to roam every single day whenever they wanted. Your pet still needs structure, boundaries, and toys.

As for chickens, specifically, toys are difficult to come by. I have come across some vendors on the internet that make chicken-specific toys, but I have done little research into them and have not tried them out myself, so I cannot vouch for them at all. My chickens love to chase paper balls ( I take a small bit of news paper - the same newspaper that I use for their bedding - and crumple it up into a ball ). They also enjoy suet and honey-seed sticks that hang from the ceiling of their coop. I can also play "catch" with my chickens by tossing cat kibble ( their preferred choice for "treats" next to tuna ), and they'll chase after it. I have heard of people buying crickets for their chickens to chase and hunt ( chickens DO have a prey drive since they are predators of bugs and even small reptiles and rodents ), but insects with hard carapaces need to be given in extreme moderation since the carapaces don't get entirely digested and can easily cause an intestinal blockage if your chicken eats too many. I have also heard that chickens enjoy the cat toys that are a fuzzy ball on a spring that's anchored on a block of wood to cat-scratch material. Since chickens are curious, have prey drives, and have foraging capabilities you can work off of all these to create your own toys. Some chickens enjoy the classic "Which cup is the prize under" game once trained that if they knock down cups, they can find something to eat, and they're smart enough to keep track of which cup has been moved to where. If you're creative you can come up with many chicken toys that will keep your chickens quite happy.

Some training exercises and disciplines ( and remember that a discipline is not always a negative action - for instance, patience training is a discipline in the same way that martial arts calls it a discipline ) can also be turned into games that will keep your pet's lives active and enriched. I once had a pair of young Campine cockerels and quickly learned that they have mentalities very similar to border collies - always needing something to do, and in constant need of feedback that their actions are approved of or disapproved of. Before finding new homes for them, I began to train them in agility and I would even go running with them, which they absolutely adored. That's all they wanted, after all, was to run, run, run. This exercise in along with disciplines such as patience training and ending with a calm and relaxing cuddle time left these two young boys feeling quite calm and happy themselves, making their company much more enjoyable.

Specific forms of fixation I have been asked to address are egg eating, feather picking, and fighting. I will address the issues in that order.


This is a behaviour that has created much chagrin amongst egg farmers everywhere since the dawn of time. Why do chickens start this behaviour? Almost always this starts as an accident ( a hen steps on an egg and breaks it, or she lays her egg in a place where it rolls off a ledge and breaks, or someone is curious and pecks at the egg and the shell breaks ), but once chickens learn that edibles lie inside, they will quickly take to breaking eggs to get to the gooey middles. After all, the hens laying the eggs are losing all of those nutrients each and every day that they lay an egg, and seldom are their nutritional needs met. A hen laying eggs needs a very specific diet - they need plenty of calcium, they need protein, and all sorts of other vitamins and minerals that plain old scratch doesn't provide. This is why there is a specific formula for layers. HOWEVER, layer formula is also formulated to encourage laying which if you simply want a pet chicken, is a very bad thing. Overlaying can lead to prolapsed cloaca, internal laying, massive calcium deficiencies, and so forth. If you are keeping chickens as pets and not just for the eggs then you will want to discourage egg laying which can mostly be done through diet. Diet and nutrition is also often what encourages egg eating after it starts.

Hens will also be more prone to eat eggs if they are struggling to maintain healthy calcium levels. Hens have a little calcium deposit ( I forget if it's an actual gland or just a deposit ) in the reproductive tract where the shell of the egg comes from, and when that is depleted calcium is taken directly from the bird's bones. During the winter months, when hens don't lay as much, they are replenishing those calcium resources, and if forced to keep laying their bones will become brittle leading to broken legs and wings along with all of the reproductive issues. Not something you want in a pet.

On top of hens having low calcium from overlaying and eating eggs for that reason, hens with low calcium lay eggs with extremely thin, brittle shells, which means if another chicken comes along and pecks at the egg, curious as to what it is ( remember that chickens only have their beaks to explore the world, so they are not always looking for food - sometimes they are just exploring ), the egg could very well break, leading to that chicken to learn what lies inside of an egg.

Some people recommend just simply collecting eggs as soon as they're laid to keep chickens from eating them. This goes under the theory of "if you never give the animal a chance to misbehave, they won't." This might be true, but what if you have to go somewhere for a day? You wouldn't want to hire a chick-sitter or to come home to find no eggs for the day, would you? I'm going to take the opposite approach which says to give the opportunity to misbehave to the animal. Correct the animal when it does this behaviour and praise when it does not. This way your pet gets the opportunity to experience what is wanted of it, and it gets the opportunity to learn about this rule and figure out what you want from it. Chickens are extremely intelligent and they will want to please you, and you can always look at every misbehaviour as a chance to teach a lesson instead of a failure After all if the animal never shows you its misbehaviour you would never be able to catch it to correct it.

When my hen, Faust, began eating Ziggy's eggs ( and then Ziggy learned through observation and started eating Faust's eggs ), I took the girls aside and laid an egg between them. They both dove for it, so I snatched the egg and gave them both "pecks" on the head - like another chicken would do to disagree with their behaviours. This repeated until they had no more interest in the egg, and would simply ignore it. I don't want them AVOIDING the problem matter, I want them to IGNORE it, because avoiding means they could do it outside of my observation and simply associate me with discipline, whereas ignoring is a sure-fire sign that they have no interest with or without my intervention. Once they began ignoring the egg, I petted them and praised them. I even rubbed the egg against their breast and head, helping to associate affection with the intact egg itself. Today my chickens will only eat eggs out of boredom or frustration, and when faced with a lone egg, neither will start pecking at it unless it is left unattended for a few hours at least.


Feather picking is something that one most often hears associated with birds like parrots, crows, or other flight- capeable and not-entirely-domesticated birds. This tends to be picking of one's own feathers more often than not, too. With chickens when the subject of feather picking arises, it most often is someone speaking of one chicken picking on other chickens, and usually involves plucking feathers off of the back of other chickens or the heads. However, I have seen cases of chickens self-plucking, and I've seen some chickens plucked absolutely bare.

The chickens I saw plucked bare were frizzled white Plymouth Rock bantams, in a flock of Rhode Island Reds, Ameraucanas, barred Plymouth Rocks, buff Orpingtons, silver-laced Wyonnedottes, and Blackstars all of standard sizes. This leads me to believe that the rest of the flock thought the frizzles looked awfully funny and opted to see what it was all about. Chickens explore the world with their mouths, pecking and plucking to figure out what things are - if things are edible, and if not what else they could be good for - and since the frizzle's feathers looked so odd, they must have wondered what was on these chickens. Perhaps they even tried to groom the feathers off of the frizzles since grooming in the chicken world entails pecking at another chicken, trying to pull dirt and bad feathers off of one another. You can see how this would lead to some poor chicken having all of their feathers plucked out, if another chicken thought that it needed to be groomed or if a whole flock needed to pluck a single feather to find out what is going on - and usually a chicken learns through trial and error, so they likely would pluck many more than just one feather before learning that they're just feathers.

Feather plucking and eating, on the other hand, can be a sign of malnutrition, boredom, ill-adjustment to a flock, frustration, and many other things. Malnutrition is the most common, and if you find your chicken eating feathers - from themselves or other chickens - the first step you should take is experimenting with diet. First try supplements of fibre since feathers are a high-fibre product, and some people will say to try tuna or something high in protein. If your chicken is still plucking and eating, try eliminating things from their diet to see if maybe the cause is an excess of something. The key here is to experiment, observe, and keep trying. More often than not feather-plucking can be resolved with a change of diet.

Also remember that chickens, just like other animals, are individuals, so even if you've been feeding your chickens the same diet for fifty years and have never seen something like this, maybe your chicken has an allergy of some sort, or maybe their system is compromised in some way One of the biggest problems I have working with people is the thought process that all animals are the same and the thing that worked for their grandparents is going to work for them, or the thing they've been doing for years has had no ill effects yet, so why should something happen now? Long-term effects can take years to develop ( such as lung cancer to smoking or diabetes to sugar consumption ), and sometimes even generations, so even if the last several hundred chickens you've had have been fine, if you notice a sudden health issue spreading through your flock it's time to reassess your husbandry techniques since your animals depend on you for their well-being.

General Fixations

"General Fixations" can be defined as a fixation on ANYTHING. My rooster, Bo, has a nervous tick in which he scratches his face. He scratched his face SO much when he first started that I didn't even catch him before his whole comb and wattles were covered in little blood blisters and the fleshy area on his beak on both sides was raw. He was also scratching so bad that he'd fall off of his perch at night in favour of scratching his face!

I'm pretty sure it's not an allergy because he seems to only be prone to scratching his face during stressful situations, and after working with him to discourage scratching it's greatly diminished and his face is perfectly healthy now.

I've also heard of a rooster who was obsessed with people's shoes and would attack SHOES relentlessly! I also worked with two Australorps who were breedists - they were perfectly find with every single other breed I brought them in contact with EXCEPT Ameraucanas! They pulled out the beards and muffs as quickly as they could. Just like people, chickens will develop personalised interests and hobbies, and some of those interests might get a little more attention than others.

In my experience, most fixations can be spotted in chickhood and with regular structure, discipline, and redirection they can be staved off as adults, but even as adults they can be dealt with, but as with everything in this blog that assumes you have the time and energy to deal with every single one of your chickens as an individual!

I was going to talk about fighting in this post, but that deserves its own post all together. My next post is going to be about what to expect with chickens if you're new to chicken-keeping, the urban myths, and the realities of chicken keeping. Perhaps the post after that will be about fighting if I haven't had any new comments to address by then!

If you have any questions or comments, take your risks commenting on the blog since I only THINK that I have things fixed, but Emails will ALWAYS get straight to me and answered in a fairly timely manner. Happy chicken keeping, everyone!

15 April 2011

008 - Breed Overview

For a much larger list of breeds with more technical information and less personal experience, please visit this website: Henderson's Chicken Breed Chart

In this journal I will be documenting the various experiences I've had working with different breeds of chicken. I have only worked with a handful of breeds of chicken in the past two years, but of those I worked with:

* Ameraucana / Easter Egger
* Australorp
* Blackstar ( Barred Plymouth Rock crossed with Rhode Island Red )
* Campine ( possibly Egyptian Fayoumi )
* Cochin
* Japanese Bantam ( Chabo )
* Orpington ( buff )
* Plymouth Rock ( barred )
* Rhode Island Red
* Silkie
* Sizzle ( a breed in progress that is a Silkie crossed with a frizzled Cochin )
* Welsummer
* Many mutts as a conglomerate of breeds listed above ( namely, Barred Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red, and Welsummer ), as well as some that are either Dutch Bantams or Old English Games bred to something like a Sebright or Mille Fleur-like breed.
* BONUS: a Turkey

Before I really delve into this, I would like to make it clear that the experience I have in judging breeds is very limited. I have only owned a handful of any given breed, and some breed experience I have is based on brief interactions with birds that I never actually owned ( working with other people's birds ). For instance, my house mate is the one with the Blackstars, Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rocks, Auracana, Cochin, and the Welsummer. I also don't have gendered experience with the breeds - the Campines were two cockerels, the Welsummer was a rooster, the Blackstars were, of course, females, who knows what the Cochin is, and so forth.

However, understanding that, I will go through the list alphabetically, as it is listed above. I will start with a small history of my experience, and what I have observed and come to hypothesise through the interactions Someday, I would love to have the time, space, and experience to really experiment with a much larger sample population of chickens to have an even better, more complete knowledge for this list. Until then, though, here's the best I can give you!


I have owned six Ameraucanas. I purchased them as day-old chicks at Del's Farm and Feed Store in two groups of three - about two weeks difference between the two batches. Four of the Ameraucanas have ended up in my house mate's flock, so I didn't work with all of them for too long, but two of them are still in my flock of five. The two Ameraucanas in my flock are Eddie and Ziggy, females. All six Ameraucanas are females.

One thing I would like to make absolutely clear here is that Ameraucanas and Easter Eggers are NOT the same thing!! An Easter Egger is a chicken that is a hybrid or a mutt of either an Ameraucana or Auracana - in other words, a non-pure bred chicken that still lays coloured eggs ( blue, green, yellow, purple... ). Ameraucana is a relatively new breed that some people still don't consider a "real" breed. Most Ameraucanas sold through hatcheries or feed stores are not well bred, and thus can be considered "Easter Eggers" instead of true Ameraucanas, which is why I have coupled them together in this post since my girls came from a feed store. However, the history of the Ameraucana states that Auracanas, due to their ear tuft gene, have lethal genes that make it so that 50% of the chicks make it to term and then die either shortly before or after hatching. That's half of your chick turn-out dying for no apparent reason. The Ameraucana was bred to keep the coloured eggs but eliminate the lethal gene. Breeds such as the Rhode Island Red and Plymouth Rock were used for this project, so if someone refers to your Easter Egger as a "Red Egger" they're using a term from when the breed was first in construction... or the few people from older generations that I've heard use it in that context are unique in their choice of dialect.

So far as temperament, I would love to rank these guys at the very top of my "desirable temperament" list. They're calm, affectionate, easily trainable, tend to be on the submissive side of things, don't pick fights, and all around very well-mannered. All six of my chicks were this way, and I keep hearing similar things from other owners of Ameraucanas. I have, however, heard that Auracanas are very feisty and difficult to work with. This all depends on the luck of the draw - genetics might make an animal more inclined to behave a certain way, but it will in no way guarantee that behaviour.

I would strongly recommend bantam Ameraucanas for starter flocks or for children - but NOT Auracanas for the reasons stated above. Since Ameraucanas are already very docile, the process of making them bantams is only going to enhance that since bantams are typically bread as ornamental varieties of their standard counterparts, and thus made to be even more docile and able to be handled. On the plus side, your chickens will lay unique, green eggs. They won't lay as much as breeds that are bred for laying ( though Ziggy gives me about an egg a day ), but they'll give you more than the Auracana. Moreover, their eggs will tend to be smaller than production-quality hens. However, with this batch even your roosters should be calmer and friendlier on a whole - but ONLY if you're treating your chickens as chickens, as this blog has preached from the beginning.


I have owned two Australorps, both female. Australorps are related to Orpingtons, their name meaning "Australian All-Purpose Utility Orpington", but their temperament is drastically different. I have not had very good experiences with Australorps and ended up giving both of mine away when they were very young to people looking for chickens reputed for a high egg production.

Australorps come in black, grey, and now blue varieties. They hold the record for most eggs laid in a year at 364. However, no Australorp before or since has EVER been able to get anywhere near that number, and as far as modern breeders know, the strain that produced that bird is gone, so don't hold out hope for your Australorp to out-lay your Blackstar. Australorps are, however, renowned for just how LARGE their eggs are, especially in their third and fourth years of life.

I did not like the temperament of my Australorps. They bullied the other chicks, plucking out ALL of the feathers on the backs of my Ameraucanas, but left my buff Orpingtons alone. I sold one at two weeks for 5$, just to get rid of her since she was the one instigating the bad behaviour, and tossed the other one into my flock of much older chicks before selling her once she just came into lay. If I had known then what I know now, I most certainly would have worked on correcting the behaviour, but at the time the whole situation was just way too much and I only wanted calm, personable birds to build my starting flock with.

I would not recommend Australorps to beginner chicken owners. They take a little more time and discipline than most other chickens, and seem to be more defiant. My flock is made up of chickens that have had calm demeanour from the start, so the two Australorps I raised were set to be adopted out from the start once I got to know their personalities. I do not consider this breed untamable or at all impossible, and they are perfectly capable of being good pets to people with the right demeanour. They need someone more energetic and structured, willing to spend lots of time with them and lots of exercise. Hens may also end up needing special care due to the size of their eggs later in life, though I did not keep my Australorps long enough to find out.

BLACKSTAR ( barred Plymouth Rock x Rhode Island Red )

A Blackstar is a sex-linked breed of chicken of the barred Plymouth Rock variety. Plymouth Rocks - specifically the barred variety - tend to be able to be bred to other breeds of chickens and create what are called "sex-linked" chicks meaning that males and females can be told apart from the moment they hatch due to colouring. Other sex-linked breeds are Amberstars, Bluebells, and Whitestars. The benefit of hybrids is what is called "Hybrid Vigour" which means that as hybrids, they have a little more of just about everything. Longer life span in some cases, MUCH more egg production, much more vivid colours, and so forth.

I have not dealt with any sex-linked males as males tend to be destroyed immediately. Males are not desirable in hybrids since they cannot breed true - which is to say a Blackstar male bred to a Blackstar female will NOT produce colour-coded chicks - and they do not produce eggs, which is what hybrids are for. The males can, however, be harvested for their pretty feathers to be used as crafts and fly ties for fishing. I have, however, dealt with three Blackstar females and a few offspring of Blackstars of both sexes.

I have found Blackstars to be on the higher end for energy levels, but calmer to handle and work with. I have also found Blackstars to be more inquisitive and quicker to learn when training. This is probably likely due to quicker ability to learn means longer-lasting and more predator-savvy birds, which would be valuable in an egg-producing flock - especially free range egg-producing birds which is where Blackstars are usually found. Similarly, I have found them to be much more adapted to being human friendly. Out of my house mate's mixed flock, the Blackstars and offspring of the Blackstars are the most common to come running right up to me. The Ameraucanas are the second friendliest in that flock.


Now here's probably one of my favourite breeds that I've worked with, and I am very, very sad that I was not able to keep my two boys. I have not dealt with Campine females, but I had two silver Campines ( which may or may not have actually been poorly bred Egyptian Fayoumis ). Campines are bred from Egyptian Fayoumis and are not very different in physiology and temperament, so for all intents and purposes I tend to group the two together, though Campines tend to be more "tame" than Fayoumis - but not by much.

The Egyptian Fayoumi is an ancient breed, remains found in ancient Egypt that seem almost unchanged from today. They were bred to be completely independent and people would just walk around the town and find eggs wherever the hens decided to plant them. These chickens were not penned at all, and would often simply wander the streets. Due to this purpose, the chickens were bred to not be very dependant upon humans. Campines were bred from Fayoumis that were imported into Northern Europe environments to keep the black and white colouring and independent temperament but to eliminate the larger combs and wattles indigenous to warmer climates. A golden variety would be created later.

My Campines I have found to fit the "independent" criteria - they keep themselves occupied, they are intelligent, learn very quickly, even experiment, and they're very high energy. This behaviour, however, translates into something else that people who have herding or sled dogs might recognise: An eagerness to please their dominant member, strong loyalty to their group, and a constant need to have a job to do. Left to their own devices, animals of this nature can become very aggressive and protective of their territory - including their people - and incredibly destructive. Most owners of Campines compensate for this simply by giving them huge roaming space since these chickens are known escape artists ( Huskies and Border Collies, anyone? ).

However, just like Huskies and Border Collies, these chickens can be given jobs to help redirect that behaviour. I gave my Campines agility courses, strict rules and boundaries, and worked with them extra hard on command phrases, socialisation, and frequently took them with me to events such as carnivals and street fairs. Giving them something to do really helped curb their negative behaviours ( aggression, crowing, tearing apart their enclosures, trying to escape, etc. ). When they came to understand that I was dominant, they became extremely loyal, affectionate, eager to please, calm, and were constantly checking in with me to see if their behaviours were accepted or denied.

I would not recommend Campines for beginner flocks, simply because they take so much time and energy. They require CONSTANT attention, rules, and reinforcement. For those content spending a lot of time with their chickens, Campines can be a whole lot of fun. They're energetic and easy to train, eager to please and quirky. They enjoy playing, and were some of the quickest of mine to catch on to harnesses and leashes. They loved riding my bike and seeing all the people in downtown Olympia. Hens will lay small, off-white eggs, but ALL Campines and Fayoumis will fly, and a standard seven-foot fence will NOT keep them contained. They MUST be trained to stay close to home, or kept on a leash. Campines do not come in standard OR bantam variety - but rather have a constant size right between the two.


I have dealt with a couple of bantam Cochins, and met a couple of standard Cochins. The Cochin I owned was a mixed bred with a Silkie and frizzled, thus part of the Sizzle breeding project, but I've helped raise a couple of bantam Cochins non-frizzled and non-mixed bred. Cochins are ornamental chickens, known for their extreme fluffiness and feathered feet. I have known many people who refer to Cochins simply as "those funny little chickens with fuzzy feet." In all fairness, their context may also have been referring to Brahmas, and standard Cochins are HUGE, sometimes used for meat production, but not commercially. Due to being considered an "ornamental" breed, Cochins are bred to have calm temperaments towards humans and each other.

Cochins are sometimes called "Pekins", but the Pekin bantam is a true bantam that is unrelated to the Cochin. Cochins are not known to be good layers, but my Sizzle, Mop, laid about an egg a day for me once she started, though it took her awhile to start laying compared to the rest of my flock. Cochins are known to be quiet, scarcely crowing or clucking, but this has NOT been my experience. Cochins that I have personally worked with have been VERY vocal - perhaps not loud, but vocal.

I would strongly recommend Cochins to beginner flocks. Even the large varieties tend to be incredibly sweet and affectionate. They need less boundary reinforcement than other breeds, but never take this as a free card NOT to give your chicken boundaries and rules. Cochins are simply less apt to challenge a limitation. Most Cochins are not good layers, and lay medium-small brown eggs. Due to their calm temperament, Cochins are great for children, able to be handled and cuddled without much complaint.


Japanese Bantams, also sometimes called "Chabo" which means "dwarf" in Java, where these chickens are also quite popular, are a very, very old breed. Recently, the Chabo was used to create a new breed now known as the smallest breed in the world, the Serama. Seramas were almost wiped out a few years ago when a hurricane hit the Malaysia area, then followed by the avian flu which ended up slaughtering the Serama population so low that breeders had to start the breed anew with Chabos once more. One large difference between Chabos and Seramas is that Seramas are known to be much, much more vocal whereas Chabos are known to be very quiet. My own boy, Sindri, only crowed thrice that I know of. The other Chabos in my flock - one male, one female - behaved much the same.

Sindri was a very, very special boy to me. My house mate purchased he and his mate at an auction, and then tossed he and his mate into a shed with about thirty or forty chicks ( mostly bantams, and about ten turkeys ) and several bunnies. Her plan was to let these two breed and make a profit on their chicks simply for the "cute" factor. However, when I went in a couple of weeks later, I found the two of them were grotesquely underweight. I took them out, fed them, and gave them some time alone, away from the chicks and bunnies. Unfortunately, when they went back in, they were so bullied by the week-old chicks that the female starved to death, and since they weren't my birds there was little I could do about it. My house mate expressed disinterest with the male if he had no female to breed with, so I took him and he became part of my flock, put weight back on, and perked up a great deal. I do think, however, that he remained ill from the event if not from literal disease, from loneliness and the trauma of leaving his home, going to the auction, and all else. He was perky and peppy around me, but whenever I left for more than a day he would become lethargic, stop eating, and just sit in a corner. Twice I came home to him being almost dead, to the point that when I picked him up he was limp, and both times I revived him. Then I left for a weekend and wasn't able to bring him with, and he passed away.

Sindri was extremely friendly and loved cuddling up with me when I was on my computer, watching a movie, or just about anything else. He took to riding my bike very quickly. He would get up on my hand and just hold onto my biking gloves. He would watch the world go by then eventually huddle up and go to sleep - yes, on my hand, while I was biking on the bike trail and through town, he was asleep. He would snuggle up on my shoulder right up against my cheek and coo, coo, coo almost like a purring cat. I could pick him up, look at his wings, his feet, open his beak, whatever I wanted and he would grunt and chortle, but put up almost no fight at all. A couple of people who were Chabo breeders said that he behaved exactly as the typical male Chabo would. It's the ones that have gotten a little bit of Serama in them that are the ones that are noisy and energetic.

I would strongly recommend Japanese Bantams to beginner flocks. With four Chabos - two of each sex - I have found them all to be very calm, complacent, affectionate, and trainable. They are gentle and sweet and love human interaction, having very little to say against it. They are quiet and great for indoor flocks, but DO NOT leave your Chabo outside unattended. Chabos are some of the smallest chickens, and make for super easy targets for predators of all kinds, including neighbourhood cats, a danger seldom thought of for other chickens because they're simply too large for a cat to think of as prey, usually. Chabos also have short legs that make it difficult for them to run away from predators, and they trip over themselves easily. Same goes for Seramas. Chabos lay tiny, off-white eggs, but they don't lay often.


Orpingtons, most commonly known for their buff variety ( though there's also black, white, and blue ), so much so that other varieties can be incredibly difficult to come by in some parts of the world, and in many areas it's often thought that the "buff" is part of the breed's name, similar to "Barred Rock" for the barred Plymouth Rock and "Black Australorp". I raised two Orpington pullets who ended on bad terms in my house mate's flock. In fact, those are the two featured in my profile picture!

The two buff Orpingtons I raised were very sweet and affectionate, with hardly a struggle or a peep in defiance when I wanted to handle them. They would cuddle up with me , and were always fairly quiet - and good, golly, gosh they were soft! Orpingtons are very common chickens for backyard flocks due to their larger-sized brown eggs, and frequency in laying.

I would strongly recommend Orpingtons to a beginner flock. They are gentle and easily trained, with the added bonus of being extremely soft to the touch. These birds are great with kids, as they tend to be easy to pick up and carry around, and extremely responsive to human attention. Orpingtons are considered "utility" birds which means that they're good for eggs and meat, so after your hen's egg production goes down, you can still get a good meal out of her.


As above, Plymouth Rocks often times thought of as "Barred Rocks", but that barring is only a colouration. Plymouth Rocks also come in white, buff, silver pencilled, partridge, columbian, and blue. They are extremely common in backyard flocks due to their production of large, brown eggs, and their gentle temperament. Plymouth Rocks are utility birds, as stated above meaning that they have a fair amount of meat on them in order to make a good meal after their egg production starts to go down. However, within modern day, the Plymouth Rock has stepped aside from its duel-purpose roots and leans more towards the side of egg production strictly.

My experience with Plymouth Rocks tells me that the are very energetic, inquisitive chickens. They love to learn and are eager to please, even the males being gentle and cooperative. They can be aggressive towards other chickens, and I have heard many, many complaints about Plymouth Rocks being aggressive specifically towards other breeds of chicken in mixed flocks. I, personally, did no experience the aggression, but I was dealing with chicks for the most part. I have heard other people state that their Plymouth Rocks deal just fine with other chickens, and when I was young I knew a barred Plymouth Rock in a mixed flock who was just fine.

I would recommend Plymouth Rocks to beginner flocks since they are so prolific and thus bred for being able to be handled and human dependency However, know where your chickens are coming from because breeds that are over-bred can come with added medical problems and behaviour problems tend to start cropping up in "cash crop" breeds. When people will pay for the breed, it's not uncommon for a breeder to care very little for the health of the animals and just try to produce as many chicks as possible. Do some research into where your chicks are coming from and other people's experiences with chicks from that source, and you should be good.


Rhode Island Reds are some of the most common chickens in the world. They lay lots of large, brown eggs, tend to be cold resistant, and also duel purpose utility birds. There is also a Rhode Island White, but it is considered a different breed. My experience with Rhode Islands is mostly limited to mutts and males, but all of my boys have been absolute dolls. Bo is my eldest chicken right now, and he has proven himself as an alert animal, alerting me to anxiety and panic attacks, starting when he was about five months old! His brother, Socrates, was also a very enjoyable friend to have while he lived with me - he now lives with a woman out on a large farm, where he sleeps indoors and sits on her lap every morning while she gets ready to tend the farm, then follows her around while she does her chores.

Bo was the first of my chickens to really get into bike riding with me. Socrates was soon to follow. Perhaps because he's the oldest, and thus has the most life experience, or perhaps simply because he's that awesome, I find Bo to be the most trainable and socialised of my chickens. He is very gentle and even when eating out of my hand, he never pinches my skin. He was rough when mating the hens at first, but I quickly deterred that behaviour, and now he is much nicer.

However, next to Plymouth Rocks, Rhode Islands are probably the ones I hear about the most as being aggressive towards other chickens in mixed flocks. I have even heard of Rhode Islands going so far as plucking other, non-Rhode Island flock members bald! No one is quite sure why breedism exists in chickens, but it seems to manifest in similar ways all across the globe. Albeit, I have typically found this behaviour to only be evident in unbalanced and unhappy flocks.

I would recommend Rhode Island Reds to beginner flocks. Such as the Plymouth Rock, since they are so popular they've been bred for good temperaments, but as with the Plymouth Rocks, "mean" strains have been created due to bad breeding habits. Educate yourself on where your chicks are coming from and other people's experiences, and you should do well to have a good experience.


Silkies are well-known as soft feathered chickens with blue skin who are rather funny-looking. Way back in the 1200s, Marco Polo described an animal from his Asian expeditions as being a cross between a chicken and a rabbit - many historians believe this to be a reference to the Silkie chicken. There are also legends in China about Silkies being akin to Phoenixes. Silkies are considered a delicacy for their unique blue skin and bones. Silkies do not lay many eggs, and their eggs are small and creamy coloured.

When owning a Silkie, frequently check to make sure their feathers are not growing into their eyes. This is also an exercise that should be done with Polish chickens, Houdans, and any other "top hat" chicken whose feathers grow over their face. If this does happen, clip the feathers away from the eyes. If the feathers are not trimmed, they can grow INTO the eyes and cause blindness.

I have found Silkies to be incredibly gentle and tame, affectionate and eager to please. My Silkie, Liza, was very quiet and loved to cuddle with me. She, Mop, and Marshmallow ( a Dutch Bantam mutt ) all live with a wonderful woman who takes very good care of them, and frequently spends time with them in the garden, and frequently sends me Emails about their well-being. Liza is very observant and inquisitive, learning quickly about the world around her. She loves people-contact and she loves other chickens. She would follow Mop around and do whatever Mop did, and the two of them were rough on Sindri when I first introduced him to the two, but after establishing the order of things, they all got along quite well, and I would see all three of them roosting together frequently.

I would recommend Silkies to beginner flocks. Silkies need special care with the feathers on their face, and also to keep their feathered feet clean. Due to their funny feathering, some people report that Silkies have a harder time keeping themselves insulated against heat or cold, and they're also much easier picks for predators. Always keep your Silkie in safe sight, and make sure their perches aren't too far off the ground since Silkies CANNOT fly like regular chickens - they can't reach the usual recommendation of three feet off the ground. However, they are extremely affectionate and eager to learn. They make for wonderful indoor chickens.


Much of what I have to say about Sizzles will be similar to what I have to say about Silkies. Sizzles are bred by breeding a Silkie to a frizzled Cochin. "Frizzle" is when the feathers bend outwards and towards the head - hence my Sizzle's name, Mop. The actual "breed standard" that Sizzles are aiming for is for the skin colouration and comb, wattle, and feet of Silkies and the feathering of a frizzled Cochin. The Sizzle is NOT a recognised breed yet, and all Sizzles are currently "in progress".

Keep in mind that you should NEVER breed a frizzle to a frizzle, as it causes feather brittleness and can cause skin problems and other genetic maladies for life. A frizzled bird is a bird with a GENETIC DEFORMATION that is considered "cute", but in reality can be devastating to the animal. It takes away the chicken's ability to fly or maintain its own body temperature, thus needing extra protecting during cold winter or hot summer temperatures, and thus robbing the bird of its basic instincts and needs to roost on high perches, to jump off of things without getting hurt, and so forth. I DO NOT CONDONE THE BREEDING OF FRIZZLED BIRDS. PERIOD.

That in mind, I did not know that Mop would be a frizzled bird when I adopted her. I purchased her in a "Bantam Bundle" which was a straight run of random bantam breeds, and she won my heart by being the first one to jump out of her enclosure, run across my room, and snuggle up in my lap. She has always been incredibly affectionate and eager to please. She always loved going out with me to meet other people, too, and loved being pet.

I would recommend Sizzles to beginner flocks. Sizzles need the special attention noted above due to their genetic condition, but so long as you are concious of their special needs, they tend to be incredibly easy to handle and trainable. Frizzles can be of ANY breed, and are NOT a breed themselves - it is simply a way to describe the feathering. Again, make sure you know where you're getting your chickens, because a poorly bred frizzle can cost you in vet bills or just be outright totally not worth it as soon as they start growing feathers, and may need to be slaughtered outright simply as a humane thing to do.


Welsummer is probably the most recognisable chicken out there. The Kellogg's rooster for Corn Flakes, Cornelius, is based on a Welsummer rooster. The Robin Hood and Rock-a-Doodle roosters may have also been based on Welsummers ( though I personally think Chanticleer was based on an Auracana with those silly ear tufts ). The Welsummer rooster is your typical story-boo rooster with the large, green-purple tail, bright orange neck, red wings and back, with a black breast and belly. He also has a large comb and large wattles, and typical yellow beak and legs. Welsummer hens lay lots of dark, chocolaty-brown eggs and speckled brown eggs.

My experience with the Welsummer breed was a poorly bred, human aggressive, young cockerel. He came from a chicken farm that was commercial production and quality, thus most chickens were not treated well at all. My house mate was allowed to take him home because he had escaped the pen, and the owners were tired of catching him, so I was given a rooster to work with. The first time I met him, he puffed up, then tried to run. I grabbed him, hugged him, and carried him around with me. I got a towel and set it on my lap, had him sit, pet him, hugged him some more, and watched The Green Mile with him in my lap. By the end of the week, he was sleeping on the foot of my bed.

This Welsummer was not aggressive due to plain being mean, he was aggressive out of fear. He was terrified of humans and felt the only way to get away from them was to fight them. When shown kindness and rules, and the fact that I am dominant thus alleviating him of his role, he calmed right down. He was energetic and perky, and very excited to learn about new things, and go to new places.

Due to my limited experience with Welsummers, I would neither recommend nor discourage this breed. I know they're not too uncommon a breed in backyard flocks, and I know they lay well, but trying to pin the personality of a breed due to experience with one extremely abused and neglected male is difficult. He was able to overcome is past pretty easily once given a chance, but most animals are that way.


Most of the "mutts" I have experience with are Dutch Bantam mutts and the two batches of chicks hatched from my house mate's Blackstars - one batch of eighteen with a Rhode Island Red father, and one batch of five from a Welsummer father. The Dutch group was a great group to work with. Unfortunately, out of six, only two are alive today. Millie passed away under mysterious circumstances, Mocha died I think due to heat exhaustion, and then I accidentally squished Miles and Artemis. The ones alive today are Bowser in my flock and Marshmallow who currently lives with Mop and Liza with a nice lady who takes wonderful care of them.

The Dutch batch were a bit aggressive with each other once hormones began to take over, but it took naught but a bit of boundary-setting and discipline to ebb that behaviour. Bowser, Miles, and Artemis used to love to crow during that adolescent stage of finding their voices, but just before Miles and Artemis were squished with Rutherford ( a suspected Belgian D'Anver ), they had begun to crow much less. Bowser is small enough that I can easily scoop him up with one hand, and as time has progressed, he's gotten used to the scooping so much that he will more often not struggle at all - no flapping or grappling with his feet - when being picked up. Marshmallow currently spends her days following her person around, and has trained her person to let her in at night, where she sleeps on a perch in a big, wire dog crate. Marshmallow also crows occasionally in the morning - AND is laying eggs!

ALL of the Blackstar chicks have been absolutely wonderful in temperament and egg-laying. Bo and Socrates have both been absolutely wonderful, and the last I heard of Socrates' new mum, he's as sweet and affectionate as ever. The group of five bred from the Welsummer dad, however, are ALL screamers. Faust and Maximilian in my flock ( Max was adopted out last summer, but his owner lost track of him, and he ended up in the humane society and no one told me until about six months later! ), and Janet in my house mate's flock. The other two chicks were victim of opossums in the yard. ALL of them, however, would scream bloody murder whenever you approached them too fast, or tried to pick them up or restrain them. Faust still screams sometimes, and Janet seems to scream if you look at her funny. Then again, I've worked with Faust and haven't worked with Janet.

Mutts are difficult to determine whether or not they would be good for someone since they are inherently unpredictable due to their mix of breeds and inherent traits. If you choose to pick up a mix-bred chicken, ALWAYS expect the unexpected, because they WILL surprise you. I have been very pleasantly surprised by all of my mutts, but then... that's what I do.

TURKEY ( unknown breed - mutt, likely )

I have had brief interactions with my house mate's ONE turkey poult. I must say, I have NEVER met a turkey in person before this little girl, and all I knew of them is that they'll stand in the rain looking up with their mouths agape and drown themselves, or that toms will do whatever it takes to mate SOMETHING, or the turkey was otherwise dumb or aggressive.

When I first met all the turkey chicks, I was amazed at how much they looked like chicken chicks with little nubs atop their beaks and more slender heads. As they grew, they also seemed to have longer necks, but that was about the only distinction! But also just like chicken chicks, they were extremely inquisitive about the world. What's this?? The turkeys are curious, thinking creatures? Well surly they would grow out of it and dumb down, right? Nope! They showed no signs of slowing down their ingestion of information from the world around them.

I've even seen the surviving turkey poult out in the rain multiple times, and not once have I seen her looking straight up! She just goes about her business as usual. She's a little special, and she's blind in one eye, but she's nothing like those rumours we've always been told about how dumb turkeys are. Sometimes she'll get stuck in the fence when all she has to do is step two feet to the side, and sometimes she seems to forget how to eat, and sometimes she even seems to forget that the chickens aren't like her, and she'll knock them off the perch when she jumps up at night!

I think the most amusing experience I had was when she got out of the pen one day. I heard her crying and crying. She was saying, "Where is my flock? I don't understand where they have gone!" I stepped outside and saw her not in the driveway as I had anticipated... but in the street! Fearing for the worst, I trotted on down the driveway and entered the street. Sure enough, a car was approaching. A man and a woman were in the vehicle and they slowed down and approached me as I followed little Turkey, who wasn't sure what to make of me walking up to her, and slowly walked away. The car stopped, and the couple started asking directions, in which I replied, "I'm sorry, I really can't help you, I'm trying to catch my turkey before she gets hurt." The couple looked confused, until I pointed out the turkey who was now about four houses down in a neighbour's yard. With a disappointed "Oh" they moved on.

I continued to walk after the turkey - I have found NO good to ever come of chasing my birds, scrambling to swipe at them or scoop them up. I only ever walk after them. After entering the neighbour's yard and walking up to the back fence, their next-door neighbour comes out and asks if he can help me with anything. Sheepishly I inform him that no, I'm just trying to catch my turkey. He looks suspicious and comes over to see what I'm doing, which is when the turkey gets caught in the hedge. I lean over and wrap my arms around her huge breast ( well, huge in comparison to a chicken ), and stand up, holding my house mate's nearly full-grown female turkey. She tries to struggle a little and cries in distress, but calms down quickly as I stay calm and don't let her go.

"Oh my goodness, you actually DO have a turkey," the older man says, shocked.

"Yeah," I say, embarrassed, "She got out of her pen, and was in the street, trying to find the chickens. Figured I'd help her home."

I turned and left the man scratching at his head over the strange event that just took place. He watched me walk home with the turkey, her head pressed against my chest, and her long legs dangling in front of mine as I hugged her close. When we got to the coop I set her down between my legs so I could keep her from running off while I was opening the door to the coop, and it was then I realised she responded to me much the same way the chickens did. With a little pressure on her back, she sat for me, and with some scritches under her chin, she closed her eyes and gave me a quiet, happy coo. I opened the coop door, ruffled her wings and scratched her blading head, and she trotted on into the coop with high, happy chirps.


As mentioned in the Welsummer advert, another famous rooster is Foghorn Leghorn based on a leghorn rooster. White Cornish chickens crossed with Sussex are what we know as "broiler birds" or in other words, every single chicken you have ever bought commercially. Leghorns are the chickens used for egg production, and once they have reached their peak to lay eggs and their production begins to dither, they are slaughtered, ground up, and sent out as such things as nuggets at your local McDonald's.

I absolutely DO NOT suggest for anyone to just go out and expect their chickens to do exactly what they want just because they read this blog. Try techniques, see what fits you and what works best, but don't think that just because it's possible you can do it, but by no means should you just give up, either. Just be patient and persistent, and if you have ANY questions DO NOT hesitate to contact me or your local chicken gurus.

If you have any questions, comments, or concerns over this latest post, feel free to Email me. Leave a comment if you would like, but if your inquiry is urgent, make sure to Email me for a quicker response.